The AC Cobra was a British sports car built in the 1960s. It was not the
first car to combine a lightweight European chassis and aluminium body with a
big American V8 engine, but it is possibly the most famous. The later, larger-engine
cars are still among the highest-performing road vehicles ever sold.
Shelby America CSX 4109 Cobra Signature Series #3 of 4 Motors were engineered
and developed by Ernie & Bill Elliot with Ford Motor Co. Estimated Value:
History and Development
Like many British specialist manufacturers, AC Cars had been using the
smooth, refined Bristol straight-6 engine in its small-volume production,
including its AC Ace 2-seater roadster. The engine was a pre-World War II design
of BMW which by the 60s the company knew was considered dated. Bristol decided
in 1961 to cease production of its engine and instead to use Chrysler 313cid
(5.1 L) V8 engines.
Although not the truth, it is commonly believed that AC was
left without a future source of power and that American ex-racing driver Carroll
Shelby saved the company from bankruptcy. AC started using the 2.6 litre Ford
Zephyr in all of it's cars. Shelby, in September 1961 airmailed AC a letter
asking them if they would build him a car modified to accept a V8 engine.
had previous experience with Anglo-American hybrids, having raced an Allard. He
first went to Chevrolet to see if they would provide him with engines, but not
wanting to add competition to the Corvette they said no. Ford however, wanted a
car that could compete with the Corvette and they happened to have a brand new
thin wall small block engine which could be used in this endeavour.
AC agreed, providing a suitable engine could be found. It was, in the form
of, Ford's 260 in³ HiPo (4.2 L) engine - a new lightweight, thin-wall cast
small-block V8 tuned for high performance. In early 1962 the first engineless AC
was air-freighted to Shelby's Los Angeles facility, where it was fitted with an
engine and transmission in less than eight hours and taken out on test. Carroll
Shelby claims the name "Cobra" came to him in a dream.
||The legendary AC Cobra is one of the world's ultimate
no-compromise sports cars. Originally derived from the AC Ace, the brutal Cobra
was the result of Carroll Shelby's dream to combine British chassis expertise
with the easily available power of a large capacity American V8 engine. 40 years
on from its debut, this much imitated car is revered the world over, and
original examples have become highly sought after. This book should appeal to
all sports car fans, as well as to Cobra enthusiasts.
You Can Purchase This Book From Amazon.co.uk
Production proved to be easy, since AC had already made most of the
modifications needed for the small block V8 when they installed the 2.6 litre
Ford Zephyr. As a matter of fact, the extensive rework of the AC Bristol's front
end which is often attributed to Shelby was done by AC for the Ford Zephyr
version. The most important modification was the fitting of a stronger rear
differential to handle V8 power.
A Salisbury 4HU unit with in-board disk brakes
(to reduce unsprung weight) was chosen instead of the old ENV unit. It was the
same unit used on the Jaguar E-Type. On the production version, the inboard
brakes were moved outboard to reduce cost. In short, the the front end of the
new cobra was entirely AC Ace 2.6 apart from the mounting of the steering box
which had to be moved outwardly to clear the wider V8 motor.
The first 75 cobra mark I (including the prototype) were fitted with the 260
engine (4.2 L). The remaining 51 Mark I model were fitted with a larger version
of the Windsor Ford engine, the 289 in³ (4.7 L) V8. Toward the end of 1962, Alan
Turner who was the chief engineer at AC completed a major design change of the
car's front end and was able to fit it with Rack and pinion steering while still
using transverse leaf springs suspension. The new car went into production in
early 1963 and it became known as the Mark II.
The steering rack was borrowed
from the MGB while the new steering colum came from the VW beetle. About 528
Mark II cobras were produced to the summer of 1965 (the last US bound Mark II
was produced in November of 1964). By 1963 the leaf spring Cobra was losing it's
supremacy in racing, Shelby tried fitting a big Ford FE engine of 390 in³. Ken
Miles drove and raced the FE powered Mark II car and said that the car was
virtually undrivable, naming it 'The Turd!' A new chassis was needed! The new
car would take the designation Mark III.
The new car was designed in cooperation with Ford in Detroit. A whole new
chassis was built which featured 4" main chassis tubes (instead of 3") and coil
spring suspension all around. The new car also had wide fenders and a larger
radiator opening. It was powered by the famed "side oiler" Ford 427 engine (7.0
L) developing 425 bhp and attaining a top speed of 163 mph (262 km/h) in the
standard model and 485 bhp with a top speed of 180 mph in the competition model.
The production of the Cobra Mark III began on January 1st 1965, two prototypes
had been sent to the United States in October of 1964.
Cars were sent to the US
as unpainted rolling chassis, and they would be finished in Shelby's workshop.
Although an impressive automobile, the car was a financial failure and did not
sell well. To save cost, some AC Cobras MK III were fitted with Ford's 428 in³
(7.0 L) engine, a long stroke, smaller bore, lower cost engine, intended for
road use rather than racing. It seems that a total of 300 mark III cars were
sent to Shelby in the USA during the years 1965 and 1966, including the
competition version. 27 small block narrow fender version which were referred to
as the AC 289 were sold in Europe.
Unfortunately, The MK III missed homologation
for the 1965 racing season and was not raced by the Shelby team. However, it was
raced successfully by many privateers and went on to win races all the way into
the 70's. Interestingly, 31 unsold competition cars were detuned and made road
worthy and called S/C for semi-competition. Today, these are the rarest and the
most valuable models and can sell for in excess of a million and a half Dollars.
AC Cobras had an extensive racing career. Shelby wanted it to be a
"Corvette-Beater" and at nearly 500lbs. less than the Chevrolet Corvette, the
lightweight car did just that. The Cobra was perhaps too successful in the
performance department and reputedly contributed to the implementation of
national speed limits in the United Kingdom.
The 427 in³-engined AC Cobra Coupe
was calculated to have done 185mph on the M1 motorway in 1964, driven by Jack
Sears and Peter Bolton during shakedown tests prior to that year's Le Mans 24h
race. However, government officials have cited the increasing accident death
rate in the early 1960s as the principal motivation, the exploits of the AC Cars
team just highlighting the potential risk.
Sent in by Flip - Thanks
Hi, My name is
Flip, I've always wanted a Cobra every since I saw 1 back in 66. It took me 43
yrs to get 1.I bought it 3 weeks ago. Its a 66 Superformance, I love it. Here
are some pictures of it. I bet nobody has 1 signed this way. Its a BB 427
stroked to 484. Here is me an my Granddaughters. Thanks Flip
Although extremely successful in racing, The AC Cobra was a financial
failure, which led Caroll Shelby to discontinue importing cars from England in
1967. AC Cars kept producing the coil springs AC Roadster with narrow fenders, a
small block Ford 289 and called the car the AC 289, it was build and sold in
Europe until 1969. AC also produced the AC Frua until 1973. The AC Frua was
built on a stretched Cobra 427 MK III coil spring chassis using a very handsome
steel body designed and built by Pietro Frua. With the demise of the Frua, AC
went on building lesser cars and fell into bankruptcy in the late 1970s'.
company's tooling and eventually the name, were bought by Autocraft a Cobra part
reseller owned by Brian A. Angliss. Autocraft was manufacturing an AC 289
continuation car called the Mark IV. Carroll Shelby eventually filed suit
against AC Cars and Brian A. Angliss, in U.S. District Court in Los Angeles. The
ensuing settlement resulted in Shelby and AC Cars/Angliss releasing a joint
press release whereby AC/Angliss acknowledged that Carroll Shelby was (and is)
the manufacturer of record of all the 1960s AC Cobra automobiles in the United
States. Despite this there is no doubt that every Cobra made in the '60s was
manufactured by AC Cars in England.
Shelby merely imported and modified the cars
into their final form. Carroll Shelby's company Shelby Automobiles, Inc.
continues to manufacture the Shelby Cobra 289, FIA 289 and 427 S/C vehicles at
its facility in Las Vegas, Nevada. These cars retain the style and appearance of
their original 1960s ancestors, but are fitted with all the modern amenities. In
2006 Carol Shelby's own Shelby
Cobra sold at an auction in Arizona for £2.8million.
The Cobra is probably the most cloned car in history; an astounding number of
replica Cobras have been produced, to the extent that the originals are in a
minority. Some are Cobra lookalikes of dubious quality, while others are perfect
replicas in every detail like the Kirkham Motorsport series built in Poland by
aircraft engineers in an old Mig fighter factory. These cars are exact replicas
of the originals except that they are built with higher standards using modern
It is interesting to note that Kirkham Motorsport now
manufactures MK2 Cobra as well, available with either the original 3 inch
Leaf spring Chassis or the MK3 Coil spring chassis. The build quality is so high
that Shelby himself bought his continuation cars for Kirkham as well for a
while. As a matter of fact, most believe that Kirkham cars are of higher quality
and closer to the original than Shelby's own modern recreations.
In 2004, Sports Car International named this car number two on the
list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s.
Shelby worked with the Chrysler Corporation from 1989 to 1991 to help develop
and style the Viper supercar and in the late 1990s, developed his own Series 1,
a composite-bodied high performance car powered by the 4.0 L, DOHC, 32-valve V8
from the Oldsmobile Aurora luxury sedan producing 320 hp (239 kW).
powerful supercharged version was available in limited quantities as well. The
Viper and Series 1 are considered to be the successors to the Cobra, although
the Series 1 was/is more like the Cobra than the Viper is, while the Viper's
big, raw, and powerful pushrod V-10 engine is much more like the Cobra's 427
than the Series 1's quad-cam 4.0 V-8.
Coupes or Coupé
In an effort to improve top speed along the legendary Mulsanne Straight at
the 24 Hours of Le Mans race, a number of enclosed, coupe variations were
constructed using the leafspring chassis and running gear of the AC/Shelby Cobra
Mark II. The most famous and numerous of these were the official works Shelby
Daytona Cobra Coupes. Six were constructed in total, each being subtly different
from the rest. AC also produced a Le Mans coupe, The car was a one-off and was
nearly destroyed after a high-speed tyre blow-out at the 1964 Le Mans race. It
has now been completely rebuilt and now sits in private hands in england.
third significant Cobra-based coupe was the Willment Cobra Coupe built by the
JWA racing team. Mike Mc Cluskey of Torrance California (one of the best Cobra
restorers in the world), builds an exact replica of the racing Shelby Daytona
coupe, these cars are exact reproductions of the originals. Also, a road-going
Shelby Daytona Cobra replica is being manufactured by Superformance, a well
known kit car company.
These cars use Peter Brock's original bodywork designs,
scaled up by 2% to increase room inside, and a newly designed spaceframe
chassis, they are powered by Chevrolet small blocks engines and also their shape
somewhat resemble the originals, they are just lookalikes. Brock's Australian
namesake, the race car driver, was killed while driving an GM-powered replica of
a Shelby Daytona Coupe in competition in Australia in 2006.
In 2003, Carroll Shelby International Inc. and AC Motor Holdings, Ltd.
announced production of authentic Shelby/AC Cobra, with the production
vehicle arriving at dealers in July 2004. Initially available models included
Shelby AC 427 S/C Cobra and Shelby AC 289 FIA Cobra, which will be branded as
the CSX 1000 and CSX 7500 Series, respectively. In February 2004 the first
handcrafted aluminum body shell was built. However, AC Motor Holdings, Ltd.
failed to perform under the terms of its license agreement with Carroll Shelby,
and a lawsuit was filed by Shelby against AC Motor Holdings, Ltd. and its
proprietor, Alan Lubinsky, in May 2006.
Shelby Motors built 22 427 competition roadsters. In 1965, 1 was selected and
converted into a special model called the 427 Cobra Semi-Competition
Super-Snake. The first one of these (number CSX 3015) was originally part of a
European promotional tour before it's conversion. This conversion called for
making the original racing model street legal with mufflers, a windshield and
bumpers amongst other modifications.
But some things were not modified,
including the racing rear end, brakes and headers. The most notable Super-Snake
modification is the addition of Twin Paxton Superchargers. This gave the car an
incredible 800 brake horsepower (bhp) and 462 ft. lbs. of torque at an
astounding low of 2800 RPM. Officially rated at 0-to-60 at 4.5 seconds, legend
and lore have it as doing that in a little over 3 seconds.
Another non-competition 427 roadster was converted into a Super-Snake (CSX
3303) and given to Shelby's close friend, Bill Cosby. Cosby attempted to drive
the super-fast Cobra, but had issues with keeping it under control. This was
humorously documented in Cosby's album titled "Bill Cosby, 200 MPH".
gave the car back to Shelby, who then shipped it out to one of their dealers in
San Francisco, S&C Ford on Van Ness Avenue. S&C Ford then sold it to customer
Tony Maxey. Maxey, suffering the same issues as Cosby did with the car, lost
control and drove it off of a cliff, landing in the Pacific Ocean waters. It was
eventually recovered and the wreckage was bought by Brian Angliss of CP
Autokraft. He is expected to auction his restored version in the future.
Shelby's original model, CSX 3015, was kept by Caroll Shelby himself over the
years as a personal car, sometimes entering it into local races like the
Turismos Visitadores Cannonball-Run like race in Nevada, where he was "waking
(up) whole towns, blowing out windows, throwing belts and catching fire a couple
of times, but finishing." CSX 3015 was auctioned off on January 22, 2007 at the
Barrett-Jackson Collector Car Event in Scottsdale, Arizona for $5.5 Million USD
(a record for Cobras). The winning bidder was local car collector Ron Pratt.
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